This paper is intended for doctoral students and other researchers considering using phenomenology as a methodology to investigate the experiences of children learning English as a second language in an elementary classroom setting. I identify six dilemmas or puzzling challenges likely to arise if researchers adopt a phenomenological approach to conducting research. The six dilemmas fall under two categories: fundamental and situational. Fundamental dilemmas include descriptive versus interpretive; objective versus subjective; and participant voice versus researcher voice. The former focus is on a fundamental understanding of phenomenology as a research method while the latter include language and cultural challenges and limitations of the researchers. Situational dilemmas arise from the challenges an investigator may encounter in using an in-depth interview as a research tool with children from different cultural and language backgrounds. I present these dilemmas so that researchers can understand more readily the challenges they may face in exploring the lived experience of these children.
Keywords: phenomenology, English Language Learners, lived experience
Effective writing is a learned skill, required to advance many forms of learning both in classroom contexts, and in job and career contexts. Previous research (Graham & Perin, 2007) has identified many strategies that promote improvements in students’ writing through a meta-analysis of research studies and previous meta-analyses. Other authors and researchers identify approaches to effective teaching (DeRiddler, 2002; Englemann, Becker, Carmine, & Gersten, 1988; McLaughlin, Gregory, Weber, & Stookey, 2005; Rosenshine, 1997; Stahl & Nagy, 2006; Waldrep, 2005). This study uses 10 of the 11 high impact writing strategies identified by previous writing research, as well as more general approaches to effective instruction, to examine the gain scores in three forms of writing by 81 students in Grades 3 to 6 classes to determine the combined effects of high impact approaches to writing on students’ ability to write definitions (concept clarification), compare, and write in argumentative formats.
Today, it is important to acknowledge our investment in the technologized visual culture world, but at the same time within that investment, allow for active participation in forms that press for engagement and reflection. Theorized through phenomenology, embodiment, and performative inquiry, Arts’ Educational Relevance in a Technocratic World presents an awakening of space moments of possibilities through active and interactive participation in installation art forms that press for participatory inquiry, engagement, and reflection with our close entanglement with the technologically driven visual culture world, the world in which we dwell, in relationship to our selves and others.
Keywords: visual culture, installation art, phenomenology, enactivism, performative inquiry
“We must educate to survive, critique and create.” (Berry, as cited in O’Sullivan, 1999, p. 8)
Transformative educators such as Thomas Berry, Brian Swimme, and Edmund O’Sullivan believe that the time has come for a shift away from the dominant Western educational ideology that focuses on achievement, individualism, and material success. They propose that education must become more than a system of banking information and standardized testing, and educators must be prepared to operate out of a much larger integrated worldview. They suggest that schools must provide balanced non-dualistic education that values students more for who they are than what they can achieve. In June 2008, the Saskatchewan Ministry of Education published a document which addresses similar concerns to those raised by Berry, Swimme, and O’Sullivan. The document entitled Renewed Objectives for the Common Essential Learning of Critical and Creative Thinking (CCT) and Personal and Social Development (PSD) recommends a number of key changes to existing educational policy in the areas of emotional, social and spiritual formation. The recommendations place emphasis on spiritual development, environmental awareness, ecological principles, human diversity, creative-ability development, and community-based achievement. This paper analyzes the educational need for renewal of current Western ideology and it supports the revamping of policy as proposed by the 2008 Ministry of Education document. It also discusses how the three principles of O’Sullivan’s (1999) integral development theory towards transformative education may be helpful for enhancing the effective implementation of the 2008 CCT and PSD Ministry of Education document.
Keywords: integrated education, transformative education
This paper presents the perspectives of some administrators whose school sites hosted demonstration classrooms that were implemented as part of a board-wide professional development initiative. Administrators highlighted the challenges of balancing the competing needs of their school system with those of their individual school communities and identified: (a) the need for advance planning; (b) the importance of consistency and communication; and (c) the complexities of acknowledging the dual roles and responsibilities held by demonstration classroom teachers. Demonstration classroom professional development programs may hold the potential to enhance teachers’ knowledge and skills. However, this study found that effective implementation of such programs requires skilled administrative collaboration and coordination.
In this paper, I explore the impact of bipolar disorder on the experiences of two groups of postsecondary students. I theorize that Bourdieu’s (1986) theory of forms of capital provides a lens for understanding how these students negotiate social, cultural, institutional, and symbolic forms of capital in their daily academic lives. I analyze the studies using a constant comparative method often used in research employing ethnographic techniques. The findings examine students’ concerns around learning and achievement within university settings and the debilitating effects of stigma on individuals identified with bipolar disorder. In doing so, the findings reinforce Bourdieu’s theory of capital, because students require relevant support to increase their access to capital in terms of educational certification, employment, finances, and membership in valued groups. However, Bourdieu’s theory has significant limitations. For the bipolar students in these studies, a form of intrapersonal capital, or personal power, was needed to take responsibility for their education and lives, and to positively influence those around them. The implications suggest that instructors in higher education need to accept students with bipolar disorders, while students with bipolar disorders need to reach out to instructors and share their needs.